This is the first year I'm breeding my western foxes (pantherophis vulpina). The male has consistantly employed a bite hold to copulate with the female. And apparently it is necessary because she is very reluctant to cooperate. They fly around the enclosure attached by his teeth and it takes quite a while to get coupled. So far this method has been used the three times I've observed them. Anyone (maybe John Meltzer) have any similar observations on vulpina courtship.